# Addition and Subtraction

## Addition

Addition means to add together different values:

6 |
= |
2 |
+ |
4 |

I now have six apples. |
I receive two more apples. |
I have four apples. |

4 **ADDENDUM**

+ 2 **ADDENDUM**

6 ** SUM**

Step 1: ALWAYS put your numbers into column form, making sure that the ones are properly aligned on the right-most side. If necessary, draw a place value table like the one below:

Hundred Thousands |
Ten Thousands |
Thousands |
Hundreds |
Tens |
Ones |

5 |
7 |
8 |
|||

+ |
3 |
6 |
9 |

Step 2:

Add together the individual numbers, starting with the ONES, and moving to the left side.

578 8 + 9 = 17, therefore write down 7 and put the 1 in the Tens column

+ 369

7 + 6 = 13, but add the 1 from before and write down the 4 from 14 in the Tens column, and put the 1 in the Hundreds column

Finally, add the 5 and 3, and the 1 from before and write down 9 in the Hundreds column

Therefore, your final answer should look like this:

1 1

578

+ 369

947

## Subtraction

Subtraction means to take away a value from another value.

6 |
= |
2 |
- |
8 |

I now have six apples. |
I give two apples away. |
I have eight apples. |

8 MINUEND

- 2 SUBTRAHEND

6 DIFFERENCE

**Step 1:** ALWAYS put your numbers into column form, making sure that the ones are properly aligned on the right-most side. If necessary, draw a place value table like the one below:

Hundred Thousands |
Ten Thousands |
Thousands |
Hundreds |
Tens |
Ones |

5 |
3 |
2 |
|||

- |
1 |
6 |
9 |

Step 2: Subtract the individual numbers, starting with the ONES, and moving to the left side.

532

- 169

2 – 9 is not possible, so we “borrow” a 1 from the 3 in the Tens place (turning the 3 into a 2 as we do so), and treat the 2 as it were a 12. Therefore, 12 – 9 = 3. We write down the 3 in the Ones column.

Now, we look not at 3 – 6 in the Tens column, but at 2 – 6, because we “borrowed” 1 for the above step. Likewise, we “borrow” a 1 from the Hundreds column (thus, the 5 now becomes a 4), and ask ourselves 12 – 6 = 6, of course.

Finally, we take our 5 – which is actually a 4 now – and subtract 4 – 1 = 3.

Therefore, your final answer should look like this:

4 12 12

532

- 169

363